Datoria publica

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Datoria publica

Mesaj Scris de Beauty la data de Joi 12 Ian 2012 - 21:56

Datoria publica

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Datoria publică
La situația din 30 septembrie 2011,
soldul datoriei publice a constituit 24,07 mlrd. lei, inclusiv:
Datoria de stat – 19,18 mlrd. lei;
Datoria BNM – 3,17 mlrd. lei;
 Datoria întreprinderilor din sectorul public – 1,56 mlrd. lei;
 Datoria UAT – 0,16 mlrd.lei.

Datoria publică externă a constituit 17 478,65 mil. lei (sau 72,6% din soldul datoriei publice
Datoria publică internă a constituit 6 587,41 mil. lei (27,4%).


Ultima editare efectuata de catre Beauty in Joi 12 Ian 2012 - 22:18, editata de 3 ori

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Re: Datoria publica

Mesaj Scris de Beauty la data de Joi 12 Ian 2012 - 21:58

Sovereign Debt

What is sovereign debt?

It's debt guaranteed by a particular government, often called external debt. What happens is this: In order to raise money, a government will issue bonds in a currency that is not the government's—and sells those bonds to foreign investors.This is what makes the debt external, as purchasers are from outside the country.

The currency chosen for the sovereign debt is usually a strong one, in that its value is higher than other currencies.Bonds, of course, are instruments of debt to be paid back at a certain time—that can be as long as ten years or as short as one year—with the original investment plus interest. Bonds issued by a government in a foreign currency are called sovereign bonds.

The money collected by the sale of the bonds can be used in any manner the issuing government wants. For instance, the funds can be used to spur job growth with spending on infrastructure projects. A government could also give the money to private companies or banks.

It's important to note, sovereign debt is technically owed by a government and not the citizens of the country issuing the sovereign bonds. It's not the national debt. However, in order to pay the sovereign debts, the government has to come up with the money in the foreign currency in which it sold the bonds. To get that money, the country could divert funds from internal spending, increase taxes, and/or induce cutbacks in social programs such as pensions.

What happens if a country defaults on its sovereign debt?

Risk that a country may not be able to pay the foreign investors who bought sovereign bonds is an issue — because it has happened. Recent examples are Russia, which defaulted on its sovereign debt in 1998, and Argentina in 2002.
This usually happens when a new government takes power and refuses to pay the sovereign debt, or simply when the country does not have the money to pay when the debt is due.

In most cases, the only recourse for the lender is to renegotiate the terms of the loan — it cannot seize the government's assets. When a country is unable to pay its sovereign debt, the loans are rescheduled for later payment or restructured at better interest rates for the country owing the debt. Nevertheless, a default would hurt a country's chances of obtaining a loan in the future. Its credit rating would also be hurt, making it more expensive for the country to sell sovereign debt bonds in the future.

Also, investors might not want to invest in a country that's not able to pay its sovereign debt, leaving the country with fewer funds for economic growth. Sovereign debt defaults can send stock and bond markets around the world into a frenzy. Confidence in the markets can suffer when a country defaults, depending on the size of the default. Investors don't get their money back or have to take reduced rates on their investments. Often, the countries that own the debt might pledge funds to help the debt-ridden country survive any type of economic collapse.

What is the history of sovereign debt defaults?

Sovereign debt has been around for a long time and so have defaults. Portugal has defaulted four times on its external debt obligations since the late 1800s. So far, Greece has defaulted five times in the same time span. Spain has defaulted six times, with the last occurrence in the 1870s. We mentioned recent examples of Russia and Argentina above.

However, there are a number of countries that have clean records of paying on sovereign debt obligations and have never defaulted. These include the U.S., Canada, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Switzerland and England.

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Re: Datoria publica

Mesaj Scris de Beauty la data de Mar 31 Ian 2012 - 21:18

National Debt / Datoria Națională

Anyone who has taken out a car loan or bought a house with a mortgage has taken on debt. It's the same for countries. They often need to borrow money to keep services going, with the promise to pay it back.

What is the National Debt?

National debt is the sum of all outstanding debt owed by the federal government. It includes not only the money the government has borrowed, but also the interest it must pay on the borrowed money. The government goes into debt when it doesn't collect enough revenue to cover the expenses it incurs from spending on programs such as the military, or building roads and bridges. The revenues come from corporate and income taxes, and the fees the government imposes, such as for visas and passports, student loans, and admission to national parks.

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What is the Deficit?

The deficit refers to the difference, in a single year, between government receipts and spending. Those deficits become the national debt when they are added together. They're tied to each other, but they're different.

Deficit spending is sometimes viewed as temporary but necessary. For the government, that might be true if it needs to spend money to fight a war. For a person, it might be true if he or she wants to take out a loan to buy a car.

But over time, running large annual deficits is a bad thing, for the government and for the average person. Here's why: think of the government's annual deficit spending like a person using a credit card to spend above his or her means. If that type of spending continues year after year, the interest on the credit card builds up. The minimum payments become larger and larger. Eventually, the charges become so unwieldy that the card holder can't pay them off without making big sacrifices (say, selling the house and the car) or declaring bankruptcy.

It's also important to note that a government can still have a national debt even if there's no deficit in a specific year. Here's how that works.

In 2001, for instance, the government had a surplus of $127 billion. However, $127 billion was a surplus for that year alone and did not eliminate the national debt, which at that time was $5.9 trillion — from all the previous years of deficits.

What is the Debt Ceiling?

The debt ceiling is a cap, set by Congress, on how much debt the U.S. government can carry. The debt ceiling idea came about in 1917. Before then, Congress had to approve borrowing for each item when the government needed money.

But to have more flexibility as the U.S. entered World War I, lawmakers agreed to give the government approval for all borrowing — as long as the total was less than a specific number. That debt limit number — usually set at a high figure — would be set by Congress.

Whenever the government is going to exceed the debt limit, Congress has to vote its approval to raise it.

So looking at this in real money, the debt ceiling in 2011 is $14.294 trillion. The national debt is more than $14.5 trillion. Congress has to approve raising the debt limit. If it doesn't within a certain time frame, funds would not be available to pay bills.

The debt ceiling has frequently been raised — 74 times since March 1962 and 10 times since 2001.

History of U.S. National Debt

From its beginning as a nation, the U.S. has been in debt at one time or another, according to the Bureau of Public Debt. The country has usually spent more than it's taken in order to keep services going.

The Revolutionary War created a debt of $75 million. The fledgling government had to pay for its soldiers, along with food and supplies. To pay off the debt, the government sold bonds, which we'll see later is one way governments fund themselves.

It wasn't until 1835 — and after another war, the War of 1812 — that the U.S. was in the black.

The Civil War produced a massive round of debt, reaching a figure of $2.7 billion by 1864. After 1865, the U.S. ran deficits in 11 of the next 47 years, having surpluses in the other 36.

Jumping ahead to the 20th century, a major period of debt followed World War I and the build up for World War II, and social programs to fight the Great Depression caused a major increase in debt to $260 billion by 1950.

Over the years, government's role expanded with programs such as agricultural subsidies, highway construction, Medicare, Medicaid, public education, the federal courts, mail delivery, food and work safety inspectors, law protection agencies like the FBI, among others.

And of course there's defense — even with some cuts in the 1990s — leaving the U.S. still spending more for it that any other country.

The debt continued to grow from $260 billion in 1950 to $909 billion in 1980. Between 1980 and 1990, the debt more than tripled, according to the BPD.

How the Debt is Financed

If you've ever bought a savings bond, you've helped provide money to cover the debt. That money helps pay off the government's theoretical 'credit card.'

The government borrows money by selling Treasury Securities such as Treasury Bills or T-Bills— and bonds to the public and/or foreign countries.

These securities come with the promise of a payday with interest. They can be short-term payoff — say, three years — or they can be longer, up to 30 years.

Where Government Spends Money

In 1900, the government spent $332 million on defense, $297 million on domestic spending and other items such as interest on the debt for a total of $629 million in spending, according to the Treasury Department. But there was a surplus that year because the government took in $670 million in revenue.

Fast forward to 2010 and there's a change in spending and programs. The biggest cost was Medicare and Medicaid at $793 billion; and together they made up 23 percent of the budget, according to the Congressional Budget Office.

Next came Social Security at $701 billion or 20 percent, followed by defense spending at $698 billion and 20 percent of the budget.

Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security, along with such items as Congressional salaries, are considered mandatory payments—they have to be paid even if the money isn't in the government till.

And interest on the debt itself was $197 billion in 2010, or 6 percent of the budget.

Summing up 2010, the government had an annual deficit of $1.3 trillion, and the national debt at that time — the sum of all previous yearly deficits — was $13.1 trillion.

Before we move on, we need to note Social Security. Established in 1935, Social Security pays for itself through taxes collected on individuals and money it makes by investing in the government.

In 1968, it was included in the Federal budget. That changed in 1986 when it was taken 'off budget' — or not included as government spending — but has since been used in calculating total budget spending. So, while technically on the federal budget books, Social Security has its own source of revenue.

The rest of the debt is owned by countries including Japan, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. China owns 7.5 percent of the total U.S. debt, much less than popularly believed.

Why the Debt Matters

A high debt level affects the cost of living, interest rates to buy homes or cars, as well as the overall economy, say analysts.

Money owed to the people/countries/investors who subsidize the debt by buying debt instruments must be paid off.

If the investors and lenders believe the U.S. can't pay its national debt, they stop loaning the government money and the interest rates go up for banks and consumers.

Debt is repaid through higher taxes and/or spending cuts.

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Re: Datoria publica

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