Gramatica limbii engleze

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Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Mar 21 Noi 2006 - 18:57

Perfectul Prezent Simplu ( Present Perfect )

A. FORMARE

Perfectul Prezent se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have( have, has ) urmat de participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat.
( Nu uitati: la un verb regulat, participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed; la verbele neregulate, el reprezinta a treia forma de baza.)

1. Forma afirmativa:

I have arrived
You have arrived
He has arrived
We have arrived
You have arrived
They have arrived

2. Forma interogativa :

Have I arrived ?
Have you arrived ?
Has he arrived ?
Has she arrived ?
Have we arrived ?
Have you arrived ?
Have they arrived ?

3. Forma negativa :

I have not arrived
You have not arrived
He has not arrived
She has not arrived
We have not arrived
You have not arrived
They have not arrived

4. Forma interogativ-negativa

Have I not arrived ?
Have you not arrived ?
Has he not arrived ?
Has she not arrived ?
Have we not arrived ?
Have you not arrived ?
Have they not arrived ?

IMPORTANT !!!
Perfectul Prezent se foloseste cel mai adesea atunci cand dorim sa scoatem in evidenta un efect pe care il are in prezent o actiune desfasurata in trecut.

Ex: I have eaten = Am mancat (deci nu mai imi este foame).
Somebody has stolen my pen = Cineva mi-a furat stiloul (asadar nu mai am cu ce scrie)

B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire)

1.Perfectul Prezent descrie o actiune trecuta, ale carei efecte se fac inca simtite in prezent

I have sold my car. Eu mi-am mandut masina(efect=trebuie sa merg la slujba cu autobuzul)
He has read that book. El a citit acea carte (efect=ii cunoaste continutul)

2. Perfectul Prezent se foloseste impreuna cu indicatori temporali nedefiniti, cum ar fi: ever, never, before, yet, already, dar niciodata cu indicatori temporali definiti, precum yesterday, last week, a month ago.

She has never seen such a car. Ea niciodata nu a vazut o asemenea masina.
I have already solved that problem. Eu deja am rezolvat acea problema.

3. Perfectul Prezent se foloseste pentru a descrie o actiune care a inceput in trecut si se continua si in momentul vorbirii(aceeasi parte a zilei, aceeasi zi, acelasi an, etc).

We haven't eaten today yet. Azi inca nu am mancat.

4. Folosit impreuna cu just acest timp descrie ceea ce s-a intamplat de curand. In romana acest lucru se exprima cu perfectul compus si adverbul tocmai.

They have just got married. Ei tocmai s-au casatorit.
We have just arrived. Noi tocmai ce am sosit.

5. Perfectul Prezent descrie o actiune inceputa in trecut si care se prelungeste in prezent.
In acest caz, se traduce cu prezentul:

How long have they been here? De cand sunt ei aici?
She has been here for three days. Ea se afla aici de trei zile.

6. Perfectul Prezent simplu se foloseste cu expresiile: This is the first time... si It's (a long time) since...

This is the first time I have been in a cave. E prima data cand ma aflu intr-o pestera.
It's a long time since you have visited me. De mult nu ai mai fost in vizita la mine.


Ultima editare efectuata de catre basaru in Dum 14 Ian 2018 - 18:31, editata de 1 ori
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Vin 15 Dec 2006 - 13:25

Perfectul Prezent Continuu ( Present Perfect Continuous)

A. FORMARE

Perfectul Prezent Continuu se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have( have, has ) urmat de aspectul continuu al participiului trecut al verbului de conjugat.
(participiul trecut simplu: worked, cleaned; participiul trecut continuu: been working, been cleaning.)

1. Forma afirmativa:

I have been walking
You have been walking
He has been walking
We have been walking
You have been walking
They have been walking

2. Forma interogativa :

Have I been walking ?
Have you been walking ?
Has he been walking ?
Has she been walking ?
Have we been walking ?
Have you been walking ?
Have they been walking ?

3. Forma negativa :

I have not been walking
You have not been walking
He has not been walking
She has not been walking
We have not been walking
You have not been walking
They have not been walking

4. Forma interogativ-negativa

Have I not been walking ?
Have you not been walking ?
Has he not been walking ?
Has she not been walking ?
Have we not been walking ?
Have you not been walking ?
Have they not been walking ?

B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire)

Perfectul Prezent continuu se foloseste aproximativ in aceleasi situatii ca si Prezentul Perfect simplu.
Totusi, accentueaza ideea de continuare in prezent a actiunii descrise:

He has read that book. A citit acea carte. ( Deja cunoaste continutul)
He has been reading that book for three hours. Citeste cartea aceea de trei ore. (si inca n-a terminat-o)
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Vin 15 Dec 2006 - 13:28

Prezentul Continuu ( Present Continuous)

1. La forma afirmativa auxiliarul apare de cele mai multe ori in forma sa contrasa:

I'm running
You're runnning
He's running
We're running
They're running

2. La forma interogativa se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar:

Am I running?
Are you running?
Is he running?
Is she running?
Are we running?
Are you running?
Are they running?

3. La forma negativa cuvantul not precedat de auxiliar apare de cele mai multe ori in forma sa contrasa (dar niciodata dupa am) :

I' m not running
You aren't running
He isn't running
She isn't running
We aren't running
You aren't running
They aren't running

4. Forma interogativ-negativa

Am I not running ?
Aren't you running ?
Isn't herunning ?
Isn't she running ?
Aren't we running ?
Aren't you running ?
Aren't they running ?

B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire)

1. Pentru a descrie o actiune in curs de desfasurare in momentul vorbirii.
In acest caz, este insotit adesea de o indicatie temporala, cum ar fi now, at the moment

Look! He's wasing his car. Priveste! El isi spala masina.
What are you doing there? Ce faci acolo?

2. Pentru a descrie pozitiile corpului:

She's standing. Ea sta in picioare
He's leaning against a wall. El sta sprijinit de un perete.

3. Cand e vorba de o actiune viitoare, prevazuta sau programata:

They're buying a new house in May. Ei isi cumpara o casa noua in luna mai. What are you doing next Monday? Ce faci lunea viitoare?

4. Cand e vorba de ceva care s-ar putea produce in orice moment:

He looks funny when he's playing his trumpet. Arata comic atunci cand canta la trompeta.

5. Impreuna cu always, pentru a exprima iritarea sau dezaprobarea:

She's always coming in when we talk something important. Intotdeauna trebuie sa intre in camera fix cand vorbim noi lucruri importante.
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Vin 15 Dec 2006 - 13:31

Prezentul Simplu

A. FORMARE

1. La forma afirmativa se foloseste infinitivul fara particula "to" al verbului:
to run / run

I run
You run
We run
They run

La persoana a III-a singular se adauga terminatia -s:
He runs
She runs

2.La forma interogativa se foloseste auxiliarul do sau does (la persoana a III-a singular) urmat de verb:
Do I run?
Do you run?
Does he run?
Does she run?
Do we run?
Do you run?
Do they run?

Observati ca numai auxiliarul se conjuga!

3.La forma negativa se foloseste do not(cu forma sa contrasa don't) sau does not(cu forma sa contrasa doesn't) pentru persoana a III-a singular:

I do not (don't) run
You do not (don't) run
He does not (doesn't) run
She does not (doesn't) run
We do not (don't) run
You do not (don't) run
They do not (don't) run

4.La forma interogativ-negativa se foloseste don't / doesn't, inversandu-se ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar. Forma contrasa e cel mai des folosita:

Don't I run ?
Don't you run ?
Doesn't he run ?
Doesn't she run ?
Don't we run ?
Don't you run ?
Don't they run ?

B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire)

1. Pentru a descrie o actiune care se repeta in mod regulat:

I go to school every day. Merg la scoala in fiecare zi.
Do you brush your teeth every day? Te speli pe dinti zilnic?

2. Pentru a exprima un obicei:

He reads a lot. El citeste mult
She doesn't smoke. Ea nu fumeaza

3. Pentru a exprima un adevar general, de exemplu o lege a fizicii:

Water freezes at 0 degrees. Apa ingheata la 0 grade. The Earth spins around the Sun. Pamantul se invarte in jurul soarelui.

4. Pentru a reda o succesiune de evenimente scurte:

He unlocks the door, comes in and takes off his shoes near the door. El descuie usa, intra si se descalta langa usa.

5. Pentru a exprima o actiune programata in viitor, in special atunci cand se specifica momentul producerii ei:

Your train leaves at two o'clock. Trenul tau pleaca la ora doua.
We meet him tonight. Ne intalnim cu el diseara.

6. Intr-o propozitie subordonata introdusa prin if sau unless, atunci cand verbul din principala este la viitor:

I'll come if they come. Voi veni daca vor veni si ei.

7. Dupa when, as soon as, before, after , intr-o fraza in care verbul din principala este la viitor:

We'll tell you when we meet again. Iti vom spune cand ne vom intalni din nou.

8.- Cu verbele care exprima un sentiment (love, hate, prefer, like, dislike...)
- cu verbele care nu presupun notiunea de durata ( seem, want, belong, know, mean, wish)
- si cu verbele care redau cuvintele cuiva ( say, tell, ask, answer)

I like movies. Imi plac filmele.
You seem tired. Pari obosit.
What does he mean? Ce vrea sa spuna?
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Mar 19 Dec 2006 - 15:45

Numeralul Ordinal

the 1st / first = primul
the 2nd / second = al doilea
the 3rd / third = al treilea
the 4th / fourth = al patrulea
the 5th / fifth = al cincilea
the 6th sixth = al saselea
the 7th / seventh = al saptelea
the 8th / eighth = al optulea
the 9th / nineth = al noualea
the 10th / tenth = al zecelea
the 11th / eleventh = al unsprezecelea
the 12th / twelfth = al doisprezecelea
the 13th / thirteenth = al treisprezecelea
the 14th / fourteenth = al patrusprezecelea
the 15th / fifteenth = al cincisprezecelea
the 16th / sixteenth = al saisprezecelea
the 17th / seventeenth = al saptesprezecelea
the 18th / eighteenth = al optusprezecelea
the 19th / nineteenth = al nouasprezecelea
the 20th / twentieth = al douazecilea
the 21st / twenty-first = al douazecilea
the 22nd / twenty-second = al douazecisiunulea
the 23rd / twenty-third = al douazecisidoilea
the 24th / twenty-fourth = al douazecisipatrulea

the 30th / thirtieth = al treizecilea
the 50th / fiftieth = al cincizecilea

the 100th / hundredth = al o sutalea
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Mar 19 Dec 2006 - 15:47

Pronumele personal

Nominativ

I = Eu
You = Tu
He = El
She = Ea
It = El, Ea (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite)
We = Noi
You = Voi
They = Ei

Genitiv

Mine = Al meu
Yours = Al tau
His = Al lui
Hers= Al ei
Ours = Al nostru
Yours = Al vostru
Theirs = Al lor

Dativ

(to) me = mie
(to) you = tie
(to) him = lui
(to) her = ei
(to) it = Lui, ei (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite) (to) us = noua
(to) you = voua
(to) them = lor

Acuzativ

me = pe mine
you = pe tine
him = pe el
her = pe ea
it = pe el, pe ea (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite)
us = pe noi
you = pe voi
them = pe ei
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Mar 19 Dec 2006 - 15:48

Numeralul Cardinal
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20 twenty
21 twenty-one
22 twenty-two
23 twenty-three
24 twenty-four
25 twenty-five

30 thirty
40 fourty
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety

100 one hundred
200 two hundred
250 two hundred and fifty

1,000 one thousand
2,000 two thousand
2,574 two thousand five hundred and seventy-four

1,000,000 one million
2,000,000 two million
1,000,000,000 one billion


Un lucru care trebuie evidentiat e faptul ca in limba engleza se foloseste virgula pentru a separa miile.
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Mar 19 Dec 2006 - 15:50

Verbul TO BE

Afirmativ

I Am = Eu sunt
You Are = Tu esti
He Is = El este
She Is = Ea este
It Is = El/Ea Este
We Are = Noi suntem
You Are = Voi sunteti
They are = Ei sunt

Interogativ

Am I ?
Are You ?
Is He ?
Is She ?
Is It ?
Are We ?
Are You ?
Are They ?

Negativ

I Am not
You Are not
He Is not
She Is not
It Is not
We Are not
You Are not
They are not
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

Mesaj Scris de basaru la data de Mar 19 Dec 2006 - 15:52

Verbul To Have

Afirmativ

I Have = Eu am
You Have = Tu ai
He Has = El are
She Has = Ea are
It Has = El/Ea are
We Have = Noi avem
You Have = Voi aveti
They Have = Ei au

Interogativ

Do I Have?
Do You Have?
Does He Have?
Does She Have?
Does It Have?
Do We Have?
Do You Have?
Do They Have?

Negativ

I do not Have
You do not Have
He does not Have
She does not Have
It does not Have
We do not Have
You do not Have
They do not Have
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Re: Gramatica limbii engleze

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